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A vehicle with a four-wheel drive (4WD) has a drive train that can send power to all four wheels. This system locks the front and rear axles together to provide additional traction when there is not enough friction on the road. It also provides additional traction, especially when transporting heavyweight loads up a steep incline.

  • When one tire loses traction, the other continues to spin, propelling your vehicle forward. But the four-wheel-drive system is not intended to be used regularly. It is only applicable to particular types of roads and is… more

A-pillar is the structural component of an automobile's frame found between the windshield and the front doors.

  • It is known as the A-pillar since it is the first frame supporting and joins the side of the vehicle's body to the roof structure and holds the front windshield. Strong steel alloys make up the A-pillar to ensure that it can withstand a crash or a rollover and comply with safety regulations.
  • In most cases, the A-pillar blocks the driver's vision, resulting in a blind spot. As a result, some automakers slimmed and chamfered the A-pillar to reduce blind… more
A/C Compressor

One of the essential components of your air conditioner is the compressor. The compressor is a belt or electric-driven pump designed to raise the pressure of the refrigerant. Increasing the pressure means raising the temperature, which forces the refrigerant to circulate through the system. High-temperature refrigerant vapor will condense rapidly in the condenser by releasing heat to the surroundings.

  • More importantly, the compressor not only helps in the cooling process. It also ensures that the machine operates efficiently and continuously. For the air-conditioning system… more
Anti-lock Brake System

Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) is a program designed in your vehicle's braking system that prevents your car's wheels from locking up during a hard braking application. This, in turn, helps the driver have more control in braking in hard conditions and prevents your car from skidding.

  • Upon depressing the brake pedal, the brake pads will engage in between the rotor disc, causing the wheels to stop rotating. As the wheels stop, frictional force will occur by the slippage of the wheels against the road causing the vehicle to stop moving.
  • A vehicle… more
ABS Light

The ABS light is a symbol on the dashboard that notifies the driver when the ABS kicks in when braking and goes off when the brake is released.

Most of the vehicles with ABS systems have a brownish-yellow or amber warning light in the instrument panel. when a vehicle with ABS is turned on, it glows as part of a system check. If the ABS indicator light remains lighted after the system check or is not in use, it means that there is a problem with the vehicle's brake system.

  • The ABS light illuminates if the ABS control module detects trouble in the antilock braking… more
AC Outlet

An AC outlet is a plug that produces the same amount of electricity as your home. The output voltage in North American versions is usually 115 volts.

  • Most modern automobiles equipped with this feature have a maximum power rating of roughly 150 watts, which is sufficient for most portable electrical devices. Typically AC outlet act as a mobile charging station to provide electrical power for portable equipment used in or around your vehicle.
  • However, there are some limitations to the outlet and some precautions to follow when utilizing electronic devices. You can… more
Active Suspension

An Active Suspension is an electronic-controlled type suspension system that raises or lowers the ride height to improve the performance and towing capability of the vehicle

  • Active suspension is also known as computerized ride control and uses hydraulics or electromagnets to operate. In the active suspensions that adjust hydraulically, sensors are responsible for monitoring the movement and ride height of the vehicle. When the system needs to modify performance or ride height, it activates a hydraulic pump that pressurizes the liquid in the shocks.
  • It works by… more
ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control)

Adaptive Cruise Control ( ACC) is a system featured in the latest automobiles that assists in maintaining a safe distance from the car in front while keeping a certain speed.

  • These sensors include cameras, lasers, and radar equipment, allowing ACC to calculate the distance between two cars or other objects around your vehicle. Adaptive Cruise Control system comes in different types, such as Binocular Computer Vision Systems, Assisting Systems, Multi-Sensor Systems, Predictive Systems, Radar-Based Systems, and Laser-Based Systems.
  • On the contrary, unfavorable… more
Adaptive Headlights

Headlights that adapt to changing conditions are known as adaptive headlights and can improve nighttime visibility and illuminate road hazards more effectively and quickly than traditional headlights. These lights can react to the turns you make, ensuring that they are constantly looking forward since they can move from side to side. These headlights are helpful when driving on a winding road, illuminating the road ahead of you where it is most needed.

  • Vehicles with adaptive headlights are most likely to avoid nighttime curve crashes. Adaptive headlights are connected with… more

Most automotive manufacturers are subject to regulations, many of which are increasingly related to environmental concerns. The most recent emissions restrictions, known as Euro 6, aims to reduce nitrogen-oxide emissions. Many new diesel-powered vehicles inject a tiny quantity of AdBlue into the exhaust fumes to comply with Euro 6 requirements. An AdBlue is a colorless, non-toxic solution of water and chemical found in urine called urea. The urea used in Adblue is pure and of a higher quality. When AdBlue solution reacts with exhaust emissions, the hazardous mono-nitrogen oxides in diesel… more

Adjustable Shocks

Adjustable shocks consist of an oil-filled tube with a piston that moves up and down inside the cylinder. It allows the front tires to lift easily, which aids weight transfer to the rear tires.

  • The advantage of an adjustable shock is that it can be adjusted to add a little extra rigidity to the suspension. Piston valves control the degree of damping by regulating the pace at which oil flows past the piston
  • Adjustable shocks can be made softer or harder by following the manufacturer's instructions. The adjustment changes the orifice calibration so that the fluid… more
Air Bag

Airbags are additional safety devices that operate best and consider as one of the essential safety developments in recent decades. They are inflatable cushions fitted into a car that protect occupants when the sensors begin measuring the impact severity if a collision occurs.

  • If the impact is hard enough, the sensors activate inflators, which fill the bags with gas in just a second. An airbag slows down the motion of the driver or passengers in the case of an impact, which minimizes your upper body and head colliding with the vehicle interior or objects outside the vehicle… more

The process of reducing air temperature by dissipating heat is known as air cooling. The amount of heat dissipated to air depends upon the amount of air that flows through air-reducing fins that transport and discharge heat, resulting in improved airflow and lower temperatures and thermal conductivity of metal usage.

  • The system's role is to have a constant current of air running over the hot engine surface from which the heat ejected. The vehicle's air cooling system does not require coolant and antifreeze solutions and can be used in cold climates. In contrast with water… more
Air Filter

An air filter is responsible for keeping hazardous particles out of the engine, ensuring that only clean, debris-free air reaches the engine's combustion chamber. A clean air filter allows the engine's mechanism to work by allowing the proper ratio of air to fuel since airflow is necessary for the operation.

  • If the air filter is clogged, contaminants may endanger the engine parts producing corrosion, and abrasion, and may cause the engine performance to deteriorate, potentially resulting in engine failure.
  • Changing the air filter of your vehicle is necessary to… more
Air Injection

The air-injection or AIR system is an exhaust-emission-control system that uses a low-pressure pump to inject fresh air into the exhaust system.

  • It reduces hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions by injecting fresh air into the exhaust gases after leaving the combustion chamber.
  • The air causes the unburned and partially burned fuel to continue burning. This system reduces the amount of these pollutants and helps convert them into carbon dioxide and water.
  • The air enters the exhaust manifold through the nozzles positioned opposite the exhaust ports.… more
Air Pump

The Air Pump, also known as the smog pump, was created to provide new, clean, and pressured oxygen into the exhaust stream. Since exhaust gases are hot as they leave, injecting oxygen at this point permits unburned hydrocarbons to be burnt as they travel down the exhaust system and eventually out the tailpipe. An air pump is a component in the secondary air injection system designed to operate continuously. This mechanism is essential in assisting automobiles in meeting government emission regulations.

Air Scoop

Typically, air scoops are the bumps found in most performance cars, especially in muscle models. Its purpose is to transfer cooler, less dense air into the engine compartment, increase airflow to the engine, allowing it to cool faster and produce more power. Air scoops create a ram effect, which causes the air to be slightly compressed and forced into the engine's intake. When cold, pressured air is burned, additional power is generated to boost the performance of your car.

Air-Fuel Ratio

The amount of air in proportion to the amount of fuel is known as the air-fuel ratio. The engine cannot perform efficiently if the fuel is too much or too little to the air volume. In most cases, the fuel-to-air ratio of a gasoline engine must be just correct to ensure good combustion in the cylinders. A suitable air-fuel ratio is crucial because the amount of air-fuel mixture drawn into the cylinders determines engine power performance.

  • Ideally, the most efficient air-fuel ratio mixture possible is 14:7:1 and best recommended for idling and light throttle conditions. If… more
Airbag Light

Airbag Light is an illuminated indicator that there is a malfunction in the airbag system.

  • The most typical reason for the airbag light to illuminate is that the airbag system has been switched off or deactivated. There could be a couple of reasons for this over which you had no control. It may be because the backup battery that operates the airbags may have depleted.
  • A crash sensor, SRS module, or other airbag components may be malfunctioning. Alternatively, the sensor in the passenger seat that decides whether or not the airbag should be active could be… more
Airbag Scanner

The Airbag Scanner is a diagnostic tool for the SRS system's faults or problems. Most scanners can clear soft codes after resolving a system's issue. The airbag scanner also has an improved data stream, allowing you to view live data feeds from advanced systems like ABS, SRS, transmission, and engine. Codes indicate a problem with a component of the SRS system, such as the driver airbag, seat belt, or impact sensor.

  • Some of the vehicle manufacturers require the use of a scan tool to perform troubleshooting.  The scanner connects to a diagnostic connector and can be read by… more
Airbag Scanner

Airbag Scanner is an OBD-II scanner that can read and clear fault codes from the Supplemental Restraint System (SRS). 

An airbag scanner is a diagnostic tool for the SRS system's faults or problems. Most scanners can clear soft codes after resolving a system's issue. It also contains an improved data stream, allowing you to view live data feeds from advanced systems like ABS, SRS, transmission, and engine Codes indicate a problem with a component of the SRS system, such as the driver airbag, seat belt,… more

Airbag Warning Light

Airbag Warning Light illuminates to notify the driver that the airbags are deactivated or in some cases, the appearance of warning light might indicate a problem with the airbag system, or the crash sensors might have been activated after a vehicle had gone through accidents and airbag did not fully deploy, or in some cases,  the seatbelt is not buckled properly.

  • A vehicle with the airbag light is drivable but recommended to fix it as soon as possible; An airbag scanner is required to read and clear the fault codes that trigger the airbag warning light. 



The alternator, also known as an AC generator, is a device that converts mechanical energy from the engine into electrical energy. It is driven by a belt at two to three times the crankshaft speed by the engine crankshaft pulley.

  • While the automobile's engine was running, the alternator produced electricity to recharge the battery and supply the electrical components with the amount of electricity required. In most automobiles, alternating current alternators are preferred over direct current dynamos in electric power generation performance and longevity. The alternating… more

Antifreeze is a liquid added to the engine cooling system to transfer heat away from the engine while running, as well as prevent the engine cooling agent from freezing while shut down during cold weather conditions. If only water was used as the coolant and would freeze if the temperature dropped. It would stop coolant circulation, and the engine would overheat.

  • The most commonly used antifreeze is ethylene glycol. A mixture of haft water and half ethylene glycol is the recommended coolant for year-round use in most cars.
  • Additionally, antifreeze is usually green… more
Anti-Roll Bar

The Anti-Roll Bar, also known as sway bar or stabilizer bar, helps control body roll when cornering or driving on rough or uneven surfaces. It usually connects between the two lower control arms.

  • When the vehicle moves around a curve, the body leans outward. It causes the lower-control arms to move in opposite directions, twisting the sway bar.
  • However, the sway bar resists being twisted, which stiffens the suspension during turns so less lean out or body roll results.
  • Anti-Roll Bar action may also occur if one tire hits a bump or pothole while the other… more