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Electronic Stability Control (ESC) refers to a computerized system for improving vehicle stability by detection and reduction of traction or skidding.

  • When the ESC system of a vehicle detects loss of steering control the brake is automatically applied to help steer the vehicle where the driver intends to go.
  • Braking is automatically applied to all wheels individually such as the outer front wheels to counter oversteer, or the inner wheel to counter understeer. 
  • Some electronic stability control systems are capable of reducing engine power until control is regained. ESC does not improve the vehicle's cornering performance. It helps the chance of the driver to reduce loss of control to the vehicle.

The electronic stability control operates only when it determines the probability of a loss in steering control. For example, a vehicle is not going where the driver is steering. This happens during skidding occurrences is emergency swerving, understeering, oversteering, or hydroplaning.

ESC can intervene on any surface, from dry pavement to frozen lakes. It reacts to and corrects skidding much faster and more effectively than the typical human driver, often before any loss of control is detected. This technology typically alerts the driver so that it may let the driver to be aware that the vehicle's handling limits have  been reached,Most dashboards are equipped with an indicator light or alert tone, and some will intentionally allow the vehicle's corrected course to deviate very slightly from the driver's commanded direction, even if it is possible to more precisely match it.