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Powertrain refers to engine, transmission, driveshaft, differential, and axles to deliver power to the wheels.

The function of this system is to couple the engine that produces the power to the driving wheels. It makes use of mechanical power to rotate the axle. This consists of a combination of the two components, that may be located at opposite ends of the vehicle and will need a long driveshaft.

  • The operating speed of the engine involves wheels that vary and must be matched by a gear ratio. As the vehicle speed changes, the ideal engine speed must remain approximately constant for efficient operation and so this gearbox ratio must also be changed
  • The automatic transmission is composed of the torque converter, transmission, propeller shaft, rear axle, spool, and differential
  • The manual transmission is composed of a clutch, flywheel, gearbox rear axle, final drive and differential.