Steering Knuckles are attached to suspension and steering components and hold wheel hubs or spindles. It is variously called a steering knuckle, spindle, upright, or hub as well. The wheel assembly is attached to the knuckle at its center point.
- Most smaller and down-sized vehicles use a rack and pinion steering gear, It has a pinion gear on the end of the steering shaft that meshes with a flat rack of gear teeth. Tie rods connect the ends of the rack to the steering arms
- As the steering wheel turns, the pinion gear moves the rack to the right or left. This moves the tie rods and steering arms which turn the steering knuckles and wheels inward and outward
- The inner ends rod the tire rods have balls that fits into ball sockets on the ends of the rack. This allows the outer ends of the tie rods to move up and down with the bellows protect the steering gear from dust and water