The early Ford Vulcan 3.0 V6 engine first appeared in the 1986 Ford Taurus and Mercury Sable. This simple pushrod design engine had two valves per cylinder was very dependable and generally trouble-free.
Ford Vulcan 3.0 V6 engine was fuel-injected with a TFI ignition system. It was effortless to maintain.
Not keeping the correct oil level and not changing oil at 3000 to 4000 miles would cause premature engine wear.
Colling System Issues
Not draining and flushing the cooling system regularly could lead to water pump failure in ways we had never seen before.
Not performing cooling system maintenance at the recommended interval meant the pump impeller would be eaten away.
Resulting in an engine overheat situation without ever leaking!
Radiators that would leak at the seams the seals between the plastic ends didn’t fail; the aluminum core would dissolve from the acids in the trash and corrosion in the coolant.
We did see many oil pan gasket leaks from this engine.
There was an upgraded gasket that was available from Ford.
Ford 3.0 V6 Vulcan Engine is no great powerhouse, but it had great fuel economy, 23 cities, and 27 highways.
It had a cast-iron block and heads. The lower intake manifold was aluminum, and the upper Intake was also aluminum.
As you can imagine, it was built pretty strong compared to what came later.
Aftermarket Oil Filter Issue
One issue that did cause quite a stir was the FL400 oil filter. Ford provided a training class on oil filters—straight from the training center in St Louis, Missouri, where Ford master engine repair training was performed.
Manufacturer and quality aftermarket oil filters have pressure relief bypass valves. When or if that filter gets restricted, it can bypass oil and allow the engine to receive oil pressure to keep it lubricated.
Inexpensive aftermarket FL400 oil filters were sold at the department stores, where you can buy anything from clothing, garden tools, trees, guns, ammo, food, car and truck batteries, tires; some had quick lanes, had the wrong filter material. These filters had a low bypass or no bypass valve, leading to serious engine failures.
Engines in these market areas, practically all over the United States, began to show up in dealers for engine failures while still under warranty.
Common symptoms were:
- engine oil consumption
- number 6 rod knocking
- piston ring failure with scored cylinder walls
- engine valve guides worn
- oil smoking from valve seals due to worn guides.
As a technician, you get approval for the replacement engine.
A stack of forms from the hotline and the parts department were required to be filled out to get a replacement engine.
Ford asked to keep the core! After Ford received the failed engine, they would examine the filter, and if the wrong filter was installed, the warranty was denied. Legal battles were common at this point.
- Misfires: Misfires ranging from P0300-P0306 triggered the check engine light. Typically they were caused due to worn spark plugs and wires. This issue was easy to fix. If the vehicle were out of warranty, it would typically cost between $300 and $550 to repair at a Ford dealership.
- Vacuum leaks: upper intake vacuum leaks, lower intake oil leaks at the intake seal end front or rear.
- Coolant leak: Occasional coolant leaks from the lower intake but not too many.
Around 1996, the engine was redesigned. The distributor TFI ignition was gone, and we now had a synchronizer that took that distributor's place. The ignition system used a coil pack instead.
This item had the A camshaft position sensor on top of it. It was a distributor drive without the bod or cap on it, and they added a 6-pack coil.
These coils caused misfires on their own.
Back to the Cam sensor, we had a dead hesitation on acceleration at 45mph; if you had to move and change lanes and floor it, the engine would buck jerk and hesitate and fall flat back to idle.
That synchronizer was dragging when you removed it was actually squeaking and dragging. The cam sensor signal was so noisy the PCM went blind, the timing went to the base, and engine performance was gone.
You might actually get a P0340 Camshaft sensor out of phase.
The oil leaks from the oil were still present even after the redesign. Once in a while, we would have Ford equipped with Ford 3.0 V6 Vulcan engine come into the shop for rear main leaks.
The redesigned Ford 3.0 V6 Vulcan Engine had a plastic upper intake with lots of vacuum leaks!
Common issues included:
- PCV Valves that collapsed and leaked,
- upper intake Orings that during cold weather would leak giving those P0171 and P0174 lean codes.
- The dreaded cooling system issues!
There was a circulation problem they tried to fix with a recall. You tested the coolant strength and acid level. If it was okay, you installed a bypass kit.
If it failed and the majority of them did, it went into this operation of removing all the core plugs and radiator hoses and heater hoses, and you pour a Ford-approved cooling system additive (that smelled like a rotten egg). This procedure was performed outside due to the strong smell.
The fluid would remove the build-up inside the engine's water jackets and radiator. The additive was flushed, and the cooling system was filled with the recommended cooling fluid.
Tho complete the cooling system flush correctly required around 5-7 hours.
Another issue we noticed with the Ford Vulcan engine had cylinder heads that were cracking at the valve seats. This required us to pull the heads and disassemble, which often led to discovering that the cylinder head was broken.
The Ford 3.0 Vulcan was a great engine if oil changes and cooling system flush were performed at the recommended interval and correct fluid and filters were used.
If a good caring auto mechanic, with a Moral Compass, did all the service, or the the owner did it themselves; either way, the outcome was just incredible.
Overall the Ford Vulcan engine is reliable as long as it is maintained. We saw several long-time Taurus 3.0 Vulcans last over 150,000 zones and beyond!
- 1986–1997 Ford Aerostar
- 1986–2007 Ford Taurus
- 1986–2005 Mercury Sable
- 1990–1992 Ford Probe
- 1991–2008 Ford Ranger
- 1992–1994 Ford Tempo
- 1992–1994 Mercury Topaz
- 1994–2007 Mazda B3000
- 1995–2000 Ford Windstar
|Ford Vulcan V6|
|Manufacturer||Ford Motor Company|
|Configuration||Naturally aspirated 60° V6|
|Displacement||3.0 L; 182.2 cu in (2,986 cc)|
|Cylinder bore||89 mm (3.5 in)|
|Piston stroke||80 mm (3.15 in)|
|Block material||Cast iron|
|Head material||Cast iron|
|Valvetrain||OHV 2 valves x cyl.|
|Fuel system||Electronic fuel injection|
|Oil system||Wet sump|
|Power output||140–155 hp (104–116 kW)|
|Torque output||160–186 lb-ft (217–252 N⋅m)|
Jeff Litwiller is a former Ford Master Technician and ASE Master Certified Technician, contributed to this article.